Fingerprint is an impression of friction ridges of fingers which is a unique in every individual. The fundamental principle is that fingerprint is an individual characteristic which illustrates that no two individuals possess exact fingerprint pattern. The fingerprint pattern will remains the same throughout the life of a person however; in some circumstances the print may change due to permanent scar or injury or any other skin disease. Each individual possess have general characteristic ridge patterns that allow them to systematically classified.
In criminal investigation era, the fingerprint is the corroborative evidence which is frequently encountered at the crime scene as compared to DNA traces. Not every crime scene contains pool or spatters of blood or any other biological fluid, but it has been touched by someone. The three types of fingerprint could be found at the crime scene are: – Latent, Patent and Plastic Prints. Latent prints are extremely difficult to identify as they are not visible with naked eye. They are mostly detected by performing chemical techniques. Patent prints are visible prints that are easily be identified as such prints are left in a substance like blood, paint, grease etc whereas plastic prints are left over the soft substances like mud, soap, wet putty etc. Therefore; it is an important role of forensic fingerprint expert to examine the crime scene carefully. The forensic fingerprint expert must use his exceptional knowledge in identification, evaluation and analysis of a fingerprint.
The fingerprints are mostly found in theft and burglary cases. Such cases are frequently encountered by police personnels and forensic fingerprint expert. It is not necessary that every time the whole fingerprint is found at the crime scene, there are times when partial prints could be encountered. This is the challenging phase for forensic fingerprint expert to examine individual characteristics of a fingerprint and to compare with the comparative samples. In burglary and theft cases, the fingerprints may be found above, below, inside or outside of almirahs, lockers, drawers, cupboards, office desks, currency etc. such fingerprints are said to be latent prints. As these prints are not visible with naked eye, such prints often require the use of chemical reagents, fingerprint powder or alternate light sources.
After the detection of fingerprint, another challenge faced by the forensic fingerprint expert is to lift the fingerprint without any distortion.
The comparison of questioned fingerprint samples is made with the standard comparative samples by the forensic fingerprint expert. The suspect’s fingerprint is taken for personal identification with the developed latent fingerprints left at the crime scene. The comparative samples of suspect must be taken on ten-digit fingerprint card where inked fingers are taken by rolled method. The ink is spread on the plain slab with a roller until the slab is completely covered with a thin layer of ink and then rolled fingerprints of both the hands are taken on the card. After taking the prints, the prints are enhanced by high quality camera to capture the image of a print and analyze the class and individual characteristics of the fingerprint.
The characteristics that places an individual in a group or in subcategory are referred to as class characteristics whereas the features which are peculiar to one specific subject and covers the small detailing of ridge patterns called Minutiae are referred to as individual characteristics. The broad classification of class characteristics are arches, loops and whorls further these categories are sub-classified as plain arch, tented arch, radial loop, ulnar loop, plain and composite whorls. The individual characteristics which are unique to every individual are examined by forensic fingerprint expert by comparing unknown standards to the known standards.
The fingerprint examination requires immense documentation to record the details of the fingerprints which is done by note making, photography and report-making. These documents are prepared for further use in courtroom testimony.
Brilliant Forensic Investigation Pvt. Ltd. is one such private forensic science organization in Janakpuri, New Delhi, India which deals with cases related to fingerprint development and verification for the personal purpose or legal purposes pertaining to judiciary or police etc. BFI forensic organization also deals with fingerprint analysis and its verification from the documents present in judicial records. Fingerprint analyst appears in the courts as expert witness for forensic report demonstration by testimony and cross examination. The forensic services are available all across the states of India specially in the metropolitan cities like Delhi NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore,.