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Fingerprint Identification, Evaluation & Examination

Fingerprint is an impression of friction ridges of fingers which is a unique in every individual. The fundamental principle is that fingerprint is an individual characteristic which illustrates that no two individuals possess exact fingerprint pattern. The fingerprint pattern will remains the same throughout the life of a person however; in some circumstances the print may change due to permanent scar or injury or any other skin disease. Each individual possess have general characteristic ridge patterns that allow them to systematically classified.

In criminal investigation era, the fingerprint is the corroborative evidence which is frequently encountered at the crime scene as compared to DNA traces. Not every crime scene contains pool or spatters of blood or any other biological fluid, but it has been touched by someone. The three types of fingerprint could be found at the crime scene are: – Latent, Patent and Plastic Prints. Latent prints are extremely difficult to identify as they are not visible with naked eye. They are mostly detected by performing chemical techniques. Patent prints are visible prints that are easily be identified as such prints are left in a substance like blood, paint, grease etc whereas plastic prints are left over the soft substances like mud, soap, wet putty etc. Therefore; it is an important role of forensic fingerprint expert to examine the crime scene carefully. The forensic fingerprint expert must use his exceptional knowledge in identification, evaluation and analysis of a fingerprint.

The fingerprints are mostly found in theft and burglary cases. Such cases are frequently encountered by police personnels and forensic fingerprint expert. It is not necessary that every time the whole fingerprint is found at the crime scene, there are times when partial prints could be encountered. This is the challenging phase for forensic fingerprint expert to examine individual characteristics of a fingerprint and to compare with the comparative samples. In burglary and theft cases, the fingerprints may be found above, below, inside or outside of almirahs, lockers, drawers, cupboards, office desks, currency etc. such fingerprints are said to be latent prints. As these prints are not visible with naked eye, such prints often require the use of chemical reagents, fingerprint powder or alternate light sources.

After the detection of fingerprint, another challenge faced by the forensic fingerprint expert is to lift the fingerprint without any distortion.

The comparison of questioned fingerprint samples is made with the standard comparative samples by the forensic fingerprint expert. The suspect’s fingerprint is taken for personal identification with the developed latent fingerprints left at the crime scene. The comparative samples of suspect must be taken on ten-digit fingerprint card where inked fingers are taken by rolled method. The ink is spread on the plain slab with a roller until the slab is completely covered with a thin layer of ink and then rolled fingerprints of both the hands are taken on the card. After taking the prints, the prints are enhanced by high quality camera to capture the image of a print and analyze the class and individual characteristics of the fingerprint.

The characteristics that places an individual in a group or in subcategory are referred to as class characteristics whereas the features which are peculiar to one specific subject and covers the small detailing of ridge patterns called Minutiae are referred to as individual characteristics. The broad classification of class characteristics are arches, loops and whorls further these categories are sub-classified as plain arch, tented arch, radial loop, ulnar loop, plain and composite whorls. The individual characteristics which are unique to every individual are examined by forensic fingerprint expert by comparing unknown standards to the known standards.

The fingerprint examination requires immense documentation to record the details of the fingerprints which is done by note making, photography and report-making. These documents are prepared for further use in courtroom testimony.

Brilliant Forensic Investigation Pvt. Ltd. is one such private forensic science organization in Janakpuri, New Delhi, India which deals with cases related to fingerprint development and verification for the personal purpose or legal purposes pertaining to judiciary or police etc. BFI forensic organization also deals with fingerprint analysis and its verification from the documents present in judicial records. Fingerprint analyst appears in the courts as expert witness for forensic report demonstration by testimony and cross examination. The forensic services are available all across the states of India specially in the metropolitan cities like Delhi NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore,.

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59 CHINESE APPS BANNED BY INDIAN GOVERNMENT- TikTok, ShareIt, Helo, UC Browser, WeChat

list of banned Chinese apps in India

In the course of the most recent years, we’ve seen an incalculable number of fights via web-based networking media with respect to prohibiting or boycotting certain applications and administrations. Without fail, when something against assumed national intrigue occurs, we witness such shock against some application and administrations. As of now, in India, it is for the most part a direct result of the Chinese applications that are thought to have had a danger to our country. It very well may be from numerous points of view like phony news and deception, information burglary (data theft), and security.

 

banned china apps in India

A couple of years back, when the Indian cell phone brands are nearer to terminated, and the ascent of Chinese cell phone brands’ development is end-less, at that point started a pattern to boycott/blacklist Chinese cell phones. It hasn’t got like it was arranged and just stayed as a passing cloud however we continued seeing it occasionally. Presently, with the whole world confronting the novel Corona Virus, Indians have decided to boycott Chinese applications.

Indian intelligence agencies have requested that the administration square or inform individuals to stop use with respect to 59 portable applications connected to China over worries that these weren’t protected and wound up separating a lot of information.

Here’s the list of applications sent by the security establishment to the government to impose a complete ban on Chinese Apps:

  • TikTok
  • Vault-Hide
  • Vigo Video
  • Bigo Live
  • Weibo
  • WeChat
  • SHAREit
  • UC News
  • UC Browser
  • BeautyPlus
  • Xender
  • ClubFactory
  • Helo
  • LIKE
  • Kwai
  • ROMWE
  • SHEIN
  • NewsDog
  • Photo Wonder
  • APUS Browser
  • VivaVideo- QU Video Inc
  • Perfect Corp
  • CM Browser
  • Virus Cleaner
  • Mi Community
  • DU recorder
  • YouCam Makeup
  • Mi Store, 360 Security
  • DU Battery Saver
  • DU Browser
  • DU Cleaner
  • DU Privacy
  • Clean Master – Cheetah
  • CacheClear DU apps studio
  • Baidu Translate
  • Baidu Map
  • Wonder Camera
  • ES File Explorer
  • QQ International
  • QQ Launcher
  • QQ Security Centre
  • QQ Player
  • QQ Music
  • QQ Mail
  • QQ NewsFeed
  • WeSync
  • SelfieCity
  • Clash of King
  •  Mail Master
  • Mi Video call-Xiaomi
  • Parallel Space
59 Chinese apps banned by Indian govt

According to the sources, there were inputs that many Android and IOS applications, either created by Chinese developers or propelled by companies or organizations with Chinese links, had the potential to be used as spyware or other malicious ware.

Mobile Forensic Investigation

Mobile forensics is the branch of digital forensics or forensic science dealing with data acquisition from mobile phones or similar electronic devices like tablets, personal digital Assistant (PDA) or handheld PC and GPS devices for investigation purposes. In today’s time, most people possess mobile devices for communication by using calls, messages, MMS services. Multiple application based apps and tools are available in all android and IOS mobile devices to communicate and exchange information’s in the forms of text messages, audio files, video files, GPS locations, photos etc. The crimes using mobile technology are also increasing day by day as criminals find mobile devices as the most convenient way to commutate, exchange their plans as well as to execute digital frauds. It has become a necessity for the digital forensic experts as well as investigating officers dealing with digital fraud or digital crimes to get all the digital information’s like call history, location history, deleted files and folders, deleted chats, deleted messages, MMS, photos, videos, app data, contact lists etc. from the seized mobile devices which may lead to key role in investigation by analyzing the digital information’s. Various mobile forensic tools like UFED, Oxygen Forensic, XRY are used for the data extraction, data analysis, and report preparation.

Mobile Forensics

Mobile forensic investigation processes

SEIZURE

Mobile devices are generally seized in order to preserve the digital evidence and to keep the device in the same condition so as to avoid shutdown or turning off of the device by the investigating officer or digital forensic expert. Faraday bags or cases are used to keep the mobile device as these bags prevent any further cellular connection or any communication with the device. The mobile device is kept in airplane mode to prevent further alteration or activities. The investigation officer would risk user lock activation.

MOBILE DATA ACQUISITION

Data acquisition is the process of gathering information from mobile devices and their associated media. This process reduces the chance of data loss due to damage or battery depletion during storage and transportation. Mobile device identification is necessary at the beginning of the forensic examination.

The data can be gathered from mobile devices in two different ways:

a)Physical Acquisition: – The physical acquisition is also known a physical memory dump. It is a technique for capturing all data from flash memory chips on the mobile device. It allows forensic tools to collect all remnants of deleted data like deleted call history, contacts, media files, GPS locations, passwords etc. Initially, the received data is in raw format and it cannot be read. Later on, some methods are applied to convert the unread data into a readable form.
b) Logical Acquisition: – Logical acquisition is bit by bit copying of data of the directories as well as files preset on file system partition. It is also known a Logical Extraction. It is a technique for extracting the files and folders without any of the deleted data from a mobile. However, some particular data such as pictures, call history, text messages, calendar, and videos. A software tool is used to make a copy of the files.

What type of digital evidences can be extracted from the Mobile Devices?

1. Call Detail Record (CDRs)
 Call started and ended time/data
 Terminating and Originating towers
 Whether the call was outgoing or incoming
 Call time duration
 Who was called and who made the call

However, the collection of this information depends on the policies of the concerned states.

2.Global Positioning System (GPS): – It is an excellent source of empirical evidence. If the suspect as an active mobile device at the crime scene, GPS can pinpoint or locate his/her location as well as his/her criminal act. GPS also locates the movement of the suspect from a crime scene to the hideout. Furthermore, It helps in finding phone call logs, images and SMS..
3.App Data: – Many apps seek permission during the installation process to access the data. Example – a photo or video editing apps request permission to media files, camera, and GPS for navigation. Database and cache memory of applications like WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Google maps, calendar etc. can be extracted.
4.SMS: – The text messages or MMS leave an electronic record of dialogues that can be presented in a court.
5.Photos and Videos (Gallery):– All the photos and videos including the deleted files can be extracted using tools.
6.Contacts: – all the contact list can be extracted using forensic tools.

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MOBILE FORENSIC TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Following cables or connectors are used to connect the mobile device to work station:-

1.JTAG or Cable Connection used in physical extraction
2.Bluetooth or Cable Connection are used in logical extraction

Forensic Tools Classification System:- Forensic specialists or forensic analysts must understand the several types of forensic tools. The classification offers a framework for forensic analysts to compare the acquisition techniques used by different forensic tools to capture data.

a)Manual Extraction: – It allows extracting and viewing data through the device touch screen or keypad. At a later stage, this data is documented photographically. Furthermore, it is time-consuming and involves a great probability of human error.

Tools: –

 Project A phone
 EDEC Eclipse

  b)Logical and Physical Extraction: – The investigators connect the cellular device to a forensic work station or hardware via Bluetooth, RJ – 45 cable or USB cable. The computer using a logical and physical extraction tool sends a series of commands to the mobile device. As a result, the required data is collected from the phone’s memory and sent back to the forensic work station for analysis purposes.

List of Forensic Tools: –

 XRY
 Lantern
c)Hex Dump: It extracts the raw image in binary format from the mobile devices. The forensic specialists connect the device to the forensic workstation and push the boot – ladder into the device to dump its memory to the computer. This supplies more information and the recovery of deleted phone’s files and unallocated space.

Tools: –

 XACT
d)Chip – off: This technique allows the examiner to extract data directly from the flash memory to a cellular device. They remove the phone’s memory chip and create its binary image. This process is costly and requires ample knowledge of hardware. Inappropriate dealing with may make a physical harm the chip and renders the information to recover.

Tools: –

 iSeasamo phone opening tool
 FEITA digital inspection station
 Chip epoxy glue remover
e)Micro Read: This involves interpreting and viewing data on memory chips. The investigators use a high power electron microscope to analyze the physical gates on the chip and then convert the gate level into 1’s and 0’s to discover resulting ASCII code. There is no tool available for micro read.

Our organization deals with cases related to mobile forensics like data extraction from mobile devices, memory cards and cloud data for the personal purpose or legal purposes pertaining to judiciary or police etc. our forensic organization also provides training in the field of mobile forensics using digital forensic UFED tool. Our Mobile forensic expert appears in the courts as an expert witness for forensic report demonstration by testimony and cross-examination. The forensic services are available all across the states of India especially in the metropolitan cities like Delhi NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore etc.

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Forensic Handwriting Examination

Handwriting Forensics is the comparative examination between a disputed handwriting and a standard handwriting sample of a suspected writer. Handwriting features of class and individual characteristics or specific writing habits of suspected writers are comprehensively compared for similarities or dissimilarities with the known handwriting sample. “Handwriting is known as brainwriting”. The handwriting is central to the person’s identity. Each person writes in his own unique way which represents the individual characteristic. It is a fact noted by handwriting analysts that most handwriting characters appear similar in some person writing as they learn the same way of constructing and forming the letters in a school. But over the period of time, a person possesses certain individual characteristics in his handwriting which differentiates his handwriting from others.

The credibility of handwriting is questioned when any individual tries to forge or alters the genuine handwriting of a writer. Here comes the role of a forensic handwriting and signature expert who analyze and make comparison between disputed and genuine handwriting samples which are mainly admitted and specimen samples of the writer. The handwriting analysis is a science-based on a notion that no two persons write exactly the same in extended handwriting. The other scientific notion is that not a single individual writes exactly the same all the time. The natural variations always exist in the person’s handwriting as hand cannot work like a rubber stamp. Handwriting is a complex act, highly developed skill, and recurring habit of an individual. The primary purpose of a forensic handwriting and signature expert is to analyze and find the differences in the writing habits between the disputed handwriting or signature exhibits and its contemporary comparative samples.

The forensic handwriting examiners are highly trained and specialized in the field of forensic handwriting analysis and verification. They use intense knowledge and scientific methods to determine the authenticity of a questioned handwriting sample. The questioned handwriting samples need to be compared with the standard handwriting samples. There are certain writing features known as class and individual characteristics that need to be taken into consideration for handwriting verification. Such writing characteristics include movement of the hand, the formation of letters, relative size and proportion of letters and words, interspacing between letters, connecting strokes, slant, alignment, line quality, style, pen pressure, shading, pen position, natural variations, etc are to be examined carefully.

There are times when a writer himself camouflages his own handwriting. The writer deliberately changes his own handwriting by changing the slant of letters, size, and proportion of letters, consciously constructs odd letters, and may deceive other tactics to conceal his handwriting identity. The other challenge in handwriting analysis relates to the simulation which is an attempt to copy another person’s handwriting. The forger tries to make a similar model of the signature on various documents like a Will, invoice, business memorandums, sale deeds, property papers, sale-rent agreements, medical certificates, mark sheets, etc. In such a situation, the forensic handwriting and signature examiner must take sufficient standard samples of suspect in order to make conclusive opinion. The standards (exemplars) must be taken in the court of law. Sometimes, while taking the specimen, the suspect consciously tries to alter or disguise his handwriting so the specimen must be taken on multiple sheets, at different writing speeds to avoid any manipulation or disguising efforts made by him. The comparative sample must not be shown to the specimen writer; the specimen must be taken by dictating it.

Sometimes, the forensic handwriting and signature expert may face a challenging phase in the analysis of anonymous handwriting in cases of threatening letters, extortion money letters, harassment notes, blackmailing letters, or notes where the writer is unknown. In such situations, the forensic expert can infer that whether such anonymous notes or letters are written by some closed one’s who are either jealous or feel competitive or rejected lovers whose intention is to torture, harass mentally, defaming, etc.

Therefore; the advancement of the forgers in performing different tactics gives a lesson to the forensic handwriting and signature experts that they must upgrade their skills and knowledge to mark the conclusive analysis and their opinion based on different cases. If any person feels cheated, by way of forgery or disguised he must consult to forensic investigation expert to get the opinion.

Brilliant Forensic Investigation Pvt. Ltd. is one such private forensic science organization in Janakpuri, New Delhi, India which deals with cases related to handwriting and signature analysis, signature verification, anonymous, or miscellaneous handwritings analysis for the personal purpose or legal purposes pertaining to judiciary or police, etc. The forensic services are available all across the states of India.

-Ravshish Kaur Kohli

Forensic Serology and Biology

The forensic biology and serology is one of the crucial discipline in the field of forensic sciences. Generally, the forensic serology deals with the analysis of blood, serum, saliva, semen, hair
and other bodily fluids to establish the relationship of the perpetrator to the crime scene. The major concern of forensic serologists to collect the biological evidence present at the crime scene in an adequate way preventing them from contamination.

Blood is one of the crucial evidences and can be commonly found at the crime scene like murder, vehicular accidents, sexual assaults etc. The forensic serologists must answer the following questions at the time of examining blood, blood stain or smears:

1) Is it blood or not?

2) Is it human blood or originate from any other species?

3) If it’s human blood then how closely it can be related to the particular individual?

The preliminary step to examine whether it’s a blood or not, various colour tests are carried out by specialised forensic at the crime scene.

a) Phenolphthalein Test (Kastle – Meyer Colour Test)

The phenolphthalein test is based on the haemoglobin pigment present in blood which possess peroxidase like activity. The phenolphthalein reagent and hydrogen peroxidase mixture are applied on the bloodstain, thus causes the formation of deep pink colour. The change in colour indicates the presence of blood.

b) Luminol Test

The luminol test is the most sensitive test to detect bloodstains. The bloodstain shows fluorescence instead of producing colour. The luminol reagent is sprayed on the suspected areas, the emission of light can be viewed and thus bloodstain will produce a faint blue glow.

The confirmatory test is performed in the laboratories to determine whether it’s a human blood or not. One of the confirmatory test for origin of species is precipitin test carried out on bloodstain. The precipitin test involves the reaction of antiserum with the corresponding antigen. Another version of precipitin test is the Gel Diffusion method. The extracted bloodstain antigen and human antiserum is placed at different holes opposite to each other. The line of precipitate forms when antigen and antiserum meet, thus confirming the presence of human blood. The precipitin test gives best result even the blood stain is 10-15 years older.

                                                                                – Ravshish Kaur Kohli

                                                               (M.Sc. -Forensic Science), Amity University

Crime Scene Investigation

A crime scene is place where an offence has been committed and the investigators carefully examine or search the area in order to find probative evidence. The purpose of crime scene investigation is to establish the possible link suspect, victim, witnesses in relation to criminal event.

In the majority of cases such as homicidal, suicidal and accidental, the crime scene investigators as well as law enforcement officers play a significant role in determining proper collection as well as preservation of physical evidence which might be accidently left by the criminal. Proper documentation and photography of a crime scene should be done by specialised and well-trained personnel that could help them to reconstruct the crime scene.

A well-trained crime scene investigator (Investigating Officer) must following basic steps in order to perform proper investigation to maintain the chain of custody:

1. MedicalAssistance to the victim if there is even a remote chance of life.

2. Securingthe crime scene by barricading using barricading tape, rope or cones etc. to protect the entry of unauthorized persons like on lookers, family members, witness etc.

3. Documentationof the crime Scene

a. Photography/Videography (Over view, Mid-range and close up photography)

b. Note Taking (Complete description of the crime scene)

c. Sketching of the Crime Scene (Rough and Final Sketch)

4. Searching of the evidences

a. Strip or line search method

b. Grid Search Method

c. Spiral Search pattern

d. Wheel or Ray search pattern

e. Quadrant or Zone Search pattern

5. Collection of Physical Evidences (Following evidences should be sent to Forensic Laboratory):

a. Victim’s Clothing

b. Fingernail Scapings

c. Hairs (head or pubic hairs)

d. Gun/Bullets recovered from the crime scene or victim’s body

e. Hand Swabs from Shooting victim (for gunshot residue analysis)

f. Semen/Vaginal/Anal/oral Swabs in case of sex related crimes for DNA Profiling

g. Blood/Viscera Samples in case of poising cases

h. Debris collection in case of arson/fire cases

6. Preservation of evidence by-

a. EDTA for blood samples

b. Air dry method

c. NaCl Solution for preserving viscera

7. Packaging of Evidences should be done using

a. Unbreakable plastic pill bottles with pressure lids (hair, glass fibers)

b. Manila envelops

c. Screw cap glass vials

d. EDTA tubes for fresh blood

e. Sealable plastic bags

f. Druggist Fold

g. Paper bags

h. FTA card for collecting DNA sample

8. Naming and Tagging of evidence (complete description of the evidence)

a. Nature of evidence

b. Name of the investigating officer

c. Person collected the evidence

d. Initials of the investigating officers

9. Forwarding Letter in order to send the evidence to the Forensic Science Laboratory.

10. Releasing the Crime Scene for general Public or Family members.

Important Awareness for 2020

DNA Fingerprinting

A modern approach of scientific investigation

DNA fingerprinting is one of the modern and standard method especially in criminal forensic case work. The basic principle behind DNA fingerprinting reveals that no two individual share the same genetic code except for identical twins and those elements of DNA that are examined and used to obtain a match. It cannot be forged or altered in anyway.

To understand the significance and value of DNA as evidence it is necessary to gain basic and explicit knowledge about basic structure of DNA, types of DNA, collection and preservation of DNA sources, extraction and isolation of DNA, DNA importance and its legal perspective in the court of law, DNA profiling procedural and ethical concern and many more.

Brilliant forensic investigation provides high quality DNA fingerprinting services all over India for both private sectors as well as law enforcement authorities like police, armed forces, courts etc. There are two different form of test covered under DNA fingerprinting-

 

Peace of Mind Test

  1. Paternity Test (With Maternal Involvement)
  2. Paternity Test (No Maternal Involvement)
  3. Maternity Test
  4. Siblingship Test
  5. DNA profiling for Individual Identification
  6. Test for Trisomy of Chromosome no. 13, 18 and 21

Court Approved Test

  1. Paternity Test (with/without Maternal Involvement)
  2. Siblingship Test
  3. Immigration Test for Individual identification
  4. Profiling for identification
  5. Identification of unknown deadbodies by DNA Profiling